Abortion Clinics – Media

http://www.GosnellMovie.com The Trial Of America’s Biggest Serial Killer

www.UnPlannedFilm.com What She Saw Changed Everything

Here’s a great listing of the Top 10 Pro Life Podcasts

Check out this website which helps clinic workers report illegal activity at abortion clinics and offers assistance in leaving the industry if desired www.ClinicWorker.com

This website documents women who have died from abortions and violence against women who dont want to have them www.SafeandLegal.com

Pro Life Apologetics

Abortion

Abortion

Articles

Joel Brind, Ph.D., is a professor of Human Biology and endocrinology and Deputy Chair for Biology at BaruchCollege, CUNY, and co-founder of the Breast Cancer PreventionInstitute. He has been teaching since 1986, and researching the abortion/breast cancer (ABC) link since1992. He recently reported that within the past decade“ literally dozens of studies” have come out of Asia and the Mideast indicating “the linkage is obvious”. Dr. Brind cites the “now raging breast cancer epidemic in China following on the infamous ‘one-child policy’ instituted in 1980. The role of abortion there became clear in 2013 [with] HubeiHuang et al. publishing a systematic review and meta-analysis of no less than three dozen studies from mainlandChina alone.” In 1996, Brind and his colleagues “documented with[their] own review and meta-analysis, among world-wide studies at that time – a 30% increase in breast cancer risk among women with a history of any induced abortions… Literally millions of women are paying the price for what I have often described as a cover-up. All these results mean that the trade association of the people that perform abortions(associations such as the American College of ObGynsand the Royal College of ObGyns) has a major PR problem on their hands. Sure, you can recycle the old lies promulgated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI)back in 2003, but the 14-year-old conclusions about allegedly‘safe abortion’ are a bit old and the ‘evidence’ almost laughably outdated.” Brind refers to the recent “fact sheet” distributed by the abortion advocacy group Abortion Law Reform AssociationNew Zealand as a “refurbished pack of lies”. The factsheet refers to NCI’s 2003 ‘workshop’ findings that “neither induced nor spontaneous abortions are linked to arise (sic) in breast cancer risk.” Brind states that he was one of the experts at the ‘workshop’ and that they “were not even permitted to examine the data during this charade of one-sided presentations.” Brind states that the NCI disburses grant money for most breast cancer research. Brindwrote a minority report contradicting the findings. One researcher who declined to collaborate on the minority report told Brind, “I have to live with these people every day; they have to sign off on my grants.” The NCI calls Brind’sreport a ‘minority dissenting comment’ on their website, but provides “no link to the text or even a mention of the author’s name.” (To access the report, go to bcpinstitute.org.)The first “fact” on the New Zealand fact sheet states, “Many studies with strong research designs conducted throughout the world with hundreds of thousands of women unanimously conclude that women who have had either spontaneous or induced abortions do not have a subsequent elevated risk for developing breast cancer.” Brind asks, “How many is many? They don’t say. Nor – most importantly– do they say what proportion of existing studies they are talking about. It is only to state the obvious that the absence of such basic data is very disturbing.” Brand then comments on the phrase “studies with strong research designs”. He notes that the phrase sounds “impressive, even meaningful, but it has no meaning whatsoever, because they don’t say whether they are good studies or bad.(Most of these ‘many’ are actually probably fraudulent, and [Brind has] published deconstructions of them many times in…peer-reviewed medical literature.” Brind then comments on the phrase that these studies ‘unanimously conclude’: “So, for example, say you have 100 studies. 20come to one conclusion (say, that there’s no link between abortion and breast cancer), and 80 of them come to the opposite conclusion (that there is a link between abortion and breast cancer). Well, in a sense the 20 studies can be called ‘many’, right? Taking the ‘many’ (20) studies (even though which in fact they comprise a small minority of the100 total studies), we can truthfully say that these ‘many’studies ‘unanimously conclude’ that there is no link…This should set a new world’s Olympic record in gymnastics – verbal gymnastics, that is! But real facts – like the fact that abortion does indeed raise a woman’s risk of breast cancer – are not subject to majority rule by organizations which engage in such deceptive marketing. Yes, they can be denied by a majority of health ministries, abortion associations, even voluntary anti-cancer charities (in reality, all the same cadre of politically correct population controllers), and you may arrive at any ‘consensus’ you like.Facts – real facts – are indeed stubborn things. The earth is round…and abortion increases a woman’s risk of breast cancer.” Iceland recently reported that they “are on the verge of
eliminating Down Syndrome”. Fr. Shenan Boquet of Human
Life International asks, “But how has Iceland
achieved this seeming miracle of modern medicine? Peel
back the cheerful headline, and one discovers a true Pandora’s
box of horrors.” Fr. Boquet notes that prenatal testing
for Down’s in Iceland is nearly universal and nearly
100% of the children diagnosed with Down’s are aborted.
(Iceland has not eliminated Down’s, they have eliminated
people with Down’s.) But Iceland is not alone.
Some studies show that 9 out of every 10 children diagnosed
with Down’s are aborted. “Many western countries
like the US, France, and Denmark – Denmark claiming a
98% abortion rate for unborn children diagnosed with
Down syndrome – are active participants in this atrocious
act of discrimination.” Fr. Boquet continues, “As horrifying as a government- imposed eugenics program is, surely there is something
equally horrifying in the fact that the eugenic mentality
has penetrated so deeply into the public mindset that there
is no longer any need for government intervention: so that
barely a single mother or father can be found…left to fight
the zeitgeist and unconditionally welcome their unborn
child with Down’s for the mere fact that he or she is their
baby, “imperfections” and all.” One study of those living
with Down’s found that 99% of them are “happy” with
their lives. Another study found that 99% of the parents of
children with Down’s love their child, and 97% of them
were “proud of them”. An Icelandic woman with Down’s
stated, “They only see Down syndrome. They don’t see
me. It doesn’t feel good. I want people to see that I am
just like everybody else.”

SURGICAL ABORTIONS involve an invasive
procedure:
Vacuum Aspiration is done in the first trimester. A
hollow plastic suction tube is inserted into the dilated
cervix. The uterus is emptied by either a manual syringe
or high-powered suction machine. The broken pieces of
the child are pulled through the hose.
Dilation and Suction Curettage (D & C) is similar to
the vacuum aspiration, but generally used after 14 weeks.
After the child is suctioned out of the uterus, the
abortionist inserts a curette and cuts the placenta and
umbilical cord into pieces and scrapes them out into a
basin. The uterus is suctioned out to be sure no body parts
have been left behind. Bleeding is usually profuse.
Dilation and Extraction (D & E): The cervix must be
dilated considerably farther than in 1st-trimester abortions.
Forceps are used since the baby’s bones are calcified. The
abortionist uses the forceps to grab the baby’s leg or other
body part and with a twisting motion tears it from the
body. The spine is snapped and the skull crushed. The
body parts must be reassembled and counted to assure that
the entire baby has been removed and nothing remains in
the womb.
Induction or Prostaglandin Abortion: Labor is induced
using prostaglandin drugs, and the cervix is dilated. To
ensure that the baby is dead upon delivery and to start
uterine contractions, saline or urea is injected. To
guarantee against a live birth, Digoxin or potassium
chloride may be injected directly into the baby’s heart to
kill the child before delivery. Other times the child may be
delivered alive and left without medical intervention until
the child dies. This method is used in the 2nd or 3rd
trimester.
Dilation and Extraction (D & X or partial-birth
abortion): The mother undergoes 2 days of dilation. The
abortionist performs an ultrasound to locate the child’s legs
and feet. Forceps are used to pull the legs into a feet-down
position. The abortionist uses his hands to deliver the child
in a manner similar to a breech birth. The head remains
inside the birth canal. Surgical scissors are used to pierce
the child’s head at the base of the skull and forced open to
enlarge the skull opening. A suction catheter is then used
to remove the brain tissue. This machine is 29 times more
powerful than a household vacuum.
CHEMICAL/MEDICAL ABORTIONS involve the
administration of drugs specifically intended to abort the
child or drugs which, at least part of the time, may prevent
implantation.
Emergency Contraception (EC) – Plan B: EC contains
synthetic (not naturally occurring) progesterone and is a
large dose of the common birth control pill. It is designed
to be taken within 72 hours after ‘unprotected sex’.
EC works in 3 ways. It attempts to stop ovulation, stop
fertilization by impeding the transportation of sperm to the
egg, or stop implantation by altering (thinning) the lining
of the endometrium so that the embryo cannot implant and
receive nourishment from the mother. The first 2 methods
are contraceptive, but if they fail, the third method causes
an abortion, since it occurs after fertilization.
Ulipristal Acetate (UPA) – ella is a selective progesterone
receptor modulator (SPRM). SPRMs block the action of the
hormone progesterone, which is necessary for ovulation
and implantation and maintaining the lining of the uterus to
support the embryo. Mifepristone (RU-486) is also an
SPRM. ella is billed as an EC, even though it acts similar
to RU-486. It is designed to be taken within 5 days of
‘unprotected sex’ and is thought to inhibit or delay
ovulation in order to prevent fertilization. However,
ovulation may have already occurred. ella can also alter
the lining of the uterus, which will prevent an embryo
from implanting, causing an abortion.
RU-486 – Mifeprex (The Abortion Pill): Mifeprex blocks
the action of progesterone, which is needed to maintain the
lining of the uterus and provide oxygen and nutrients for
the child. Mifeprex is used with Cytotec (misoprostol).
Cytotec causes uterine bleeding, which can be profuse,
strong contractions and expulsion of the child. A woman
receives the Mifeprex pills on the first visit, returns 2 days
later for the misoprostol, and a third visit is required to
verify that the abortion is complete. The ‘failure’ rate of
this method is 8% at 7 weeks, and up to 23% at 8 or 9
weeks. If the child survives this abortion attempt, there is
a higher risk of mental and/or physical birth defects from
the misoprostol.
Hormonal Contraceptives: All hormonal contraceptives
including the pill, mini pill, patch, vaginal ring, intrauterine
device (IUD), or injection can work in one of 3 ways:
prevent ovulation, prevent fertilization or prevent implantation.
As stated earlier, the first 2 methods are contraceptive,
but if they fail, the third method causes an abortion.
Risks and side effects from abortion include breast cancer,
post-abortion grief which may result in emotional and
physical disturbances (including depression, insomnia,
nervousness, guilt and regret, alcohol and drug abuse, and
suicidal thoughts), complications in future pregnancies
(including excessive bleeding, premature delivery, placenta
previa, retention of the placenta, cervical damage and
sterility), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), uterine
perforations, and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. Risks from
hormonal birth control include blood clots, ectopic
pregnancy, bacterial infections, increased susceptibility to
the AIDS virus and increased risk of cervical and breast
cancer. Studies have also shown an increase in sexually
transmitted infection rates since EC became widely
available. 

Sources: Human Life Alliance, ‘Do you have an open mind?’, and www.all.org

Randall K. O’Bannon, Ph.D., NRL Director of
Education & Research, commented in National Right
to Life News Today on December 1st and 2nd on the
latest CDC report. The US Centers for Disease Control
(CDC) recently released their abortion surveillance
report for 2011. There was a significant drop in the
number, rate and ratio of abortions in the US. (Note:
the most populous state, California, as well as
Maryland and New Hampshire did not submit data).
The Guttmacher Institute (a nonprofit research
organization that supports abortion) issued a report
earlier this year that also showed a notable drop in the
number of abortions. The CDC reported 730,322
abortions for 2011. The Guttmacher Institute reported
1,058,470 for the same year. The Guttmacher Institute
surveys abortion facilities directly. The CDC relies on
state health reports. This explains the higher number
reported by Guttmacher. Therefore, Guttmacher’s
numbers are viewed as more accurate. However,
Guttmacher only issues reports every few years. The
CDC reports annually, and tracks the same variables
most years.
The 2011 total is the lowest number of abortions
reported by the CDC since California, New Hampshire
and at least one other state were dropped in 1998. The
abortion rate of 13.9 (number of abortions per 1000
women ages 15-44) is the lowest recorded rate since
1973. The abortion ratio (number of abortions for
every 1000 live births) was 359 in 1980. The abortion
ratio for 2011 was 219 – quite a significant drop.
Women aged 29 and younger had 71.7% of the
reported abortions in the 2011 CDC report. 32.9%
of these were women aged 20-24. Overall, teens
accounted for 13.9% of all abortions in 2011. In 1980,
teens accounted for 29.2% of all abortions.
The abortion rate for women 30-34 did not drop as
significantly, and the abortion rate for women 35-39
went up 1.4% and for women 40 and over there was a
7.7% increase. O’Bannon questions whether this could
reflect a generational attitude difference (younger
women more pro-life) or the result of more pre-natal
genetic testing which results in abortion after a
negative diagnosis.
More abortions were done at less than 8 weeks
gestation in 2011 (64.5%) than in 1973 (36.1%). More
than 1/3 of all abortions are now done at 6 weeks or
less. O’Bannon notes the significant increase in the use
of chemical abortion methods. However, most abortions
(79.4%) still fall under “curettage” which includes
manual vacuum aspiration, suction aspiration, D&E
(dilation and evacuation) and other surgical methods.
Abortions at 14 weeks gestation or more accounted for
8.7% of all abortions. 7,325 were done at 21 weeks or
more.
The Wednesday STOPP report of December 3, 2014
issued by Stop Planned Parenthood noted that the CDC
report showed that abortion ratios throughout the entire
period were highest among girls under the age of 15, and
that abortion ratios decreased from 2002 to 2011 for
women in all age groups except those under 15. The
STOPP report noted that a Planned Parenthood fact
sheet acknowledges that adolescents are more likely to
have an abortion at 21 weeks gestation or later.
Most abortions (85.5%) involve unmarried women.
46.4% of all abortions were repeat abortions with 25.5%
having one previous abortion, 11.6% having 2 and 9.3%
reporting 3 or more previous abortions. 60% of all
women reported having had at least one previous live
birth. 19.6% had at least 2 children and 13.9% had 3 or
more. O’Bannon notes that this indicates a need to
address the needs of the young, single mom as well as
the high school teenager.
Race and ethnicity are more difficult to report, since
the states track this information differently or not at all.
However, O’Bannon reports that abortion rates for
Hispanics dropped more than those for non-Hispanics,
and that although African Americans make up 14.2% of
the US population, African American women accounted
for 36-38% of all abortions in the US in 2011. Abortion
rates for African Americans did go down over the past
10 years, but are still much higher than other groups.
The black abortion rate is 25.8 versus 7.8 for white. The
black abortion ratio is 381 abortions for every 1000 live
births and 126 abortions for whites. O’Bannon states that
these numbers indicate a need to increase the pro-life
outreach to minority communities.
Dr. O’Bannon notes that although the number of
abortions has dropped significantly over the past 20
years, women are still dying from abortion. 10 women
are known to have died in 2010 (CDC abortion mortality
figures are always behind by one year). For 11 years, 6
or more women have died from abortions. He notes that
the risk of death from abortion figures reported by the
CDC for the past decade are actually higher than it was
for the previous one. He acknowledges that we have
made progress, but there are still many ways for us to
save unborn babies and their mothers.

Websites

“God who gave us life gave us liberty. And can the liberties of a nation be thought secure when we have removed their only firm basis, a conviction in the minds of the people that these liberties are a gift of God? That they are not to be violated but with His wrath? Indeed, I tremble for my country when I reflect that God is just; that His justice cannot sleep forever.”

Thomas Jefferson, 1781

Media

Changing Attitudes on Abortion

s

Post Abortion

Post Abortion

Websites

Help Resources – Pregnancy & Post Abortion

Pregnant? Need help? 24-hour hotlines:
International Pregnancy Hotline:  1-800-395-HELP [optionline.org]

Birthright International hotline:  1-800-550-4900

Note: The article transcripts above have been generated from original source text. While the transcript rarely is inaccurate, thing happen. For a 100% percent accurate copy of any of the above articles, click the download button to get a PDF.

Black Genocide

Black Genocide

BLACK GENOCIDE…

Learn about Black Genocide in the 21st Century. Watch www.MAAFA21.com  

or Youtube Black Genocide Maafa 21

Mark Crutcher, Maafa21 filmmaker, traces eugenic thoughts & practices used against African Americans from the era of slavery to today.

It is happening right here and right NOW!!!

Watch and share with Others.

Fetal Development

Fetal Development

Articles

Life News – 4 April 2019

HEALTH & SCIENCE

“Late-Term Abortion”

The “Questions and Answers on Late-Term Abor- tion Fact Sheet” updated 2/1/19 by the Charlotte Lo- zier Institute (CLI) states, “’Late-term’ abortion is an imprecise term. Authorities have disagreed on how the phrase should be defined, with some including any abortion performed after the 20th week of gesta- tion and others limiting the term to the third trimester (approximately 27 weeks of gestation to delivery). Use of the term is also sometimes rooted in the con- cept of viability, or that stage of pregnancy where, on average, an unborn child can survive on its own out- side the womb, albeit with artificial sup- port…’viability’ itself is a term whose application varies over time, occurring earlier in pregnancy as active treatment resources increase and medical equipment and skills improve. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control’s abortion surveillance system uses greater than or equal to 21 weeks of gestation to de- livery as its upper category, and the system does not distinguish abortions by week at that limit or above.”

The Fact Sheet describes ‘the dreaded complica- tion’ of “a child born alive despite the effort to kill him or her in utero…A number of victims of these procedures [saline or prostaglandin abortions] are alive today and testify to their experiences.” Abor- tionists now attempt to “ensure fetal demise before delivery”. The ban on partial birth abortion (delivering a child into the birth canal up to its shoul- ders and then killing it by crushing the skull) was banned by Congress in 2003 and upheld by the Su- preme Court in 2007 (Gonzalez v Carhart). The cur- rent practice involves dilating the mother’s cervix a day or two before the abortion, and injecting potassi- um chloride or digoxin into the heart or head of the unborn child to “ensure that he or she is dead upon delivery”. On the day of the abortion, “uterine evacu- ation is then performed. For younger babies this can be primarily accomplished using suction to remove as much tissue and soft body parts as possible, followed by forceps removal of larger and harder body parts. For older and larger babies, dismemberment using forceps is used (grasping and pulling off limbs for removal). The brain is usually then removed by suc- tion and the skull crushed for removal…Misoprostol may also be given to the mother to induce uterine contractions, especially to help expel all the body parts and placenta.”

Fisher and Kimport reported in the journal Perspec- tives on Sexual and Reproductive Health in 2013 that “data suggests that most women seeking later termi- nations are not doing so for reasons of fetal anomaly or life endangerment.” They found that reasons for abortion were basically the same for women who had abortions at 20 weeks and those who had abortions prior to 20 weeks. In 2018, Dr. Foster noted in a re-

port for the Congressional Research Service “that abortions for fetal anomaly ‘make up a small minority of later abortion’ and that those for life endangerment are even harder to character- ize.”

The Fact Sheet states the “most recent data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on total abortions and late-term abortions suggests that approximately 1.3% of abortions are carried out at 21 weeks of gestation and above.” However, this number is probably higher, since 12 reporting areas are not included in the CDC’s calculations. “These reporting areas account for more than half of all abor- tions performed in the United States, and all but one permit abortion on demand after 20 weeks.” The research arm of the abortion lobby, the Guttmacher Institute, surveys abortion fa- cilities and estimates that over 926,000 abortions were per- formed in the US in 2014. That “translates into an estimated 12,040 late-term abortions in that year.” California, Maryland, and New Hampshire do not collect any abortion data. Pro- abortion groups consider “government tracking of these data to be ‘intrusive and unnecessary’ – while acknowledging that information on women’s reasons for abortion is critical to an understanding of abortion trends, public policy, and public opinion.”

According to Dr. Donna Harrison, M.D., Executive Direc- tor of the American Association of Pro-Life Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AAPLOG), “Late-term abortions are much more dangerous for the mother than giving birth. Late-term abortions involve much higher risk of perforating the womb, massive bleeding, and damage to the womb. Late-term abor- tions are only safe for the abortionist, not for the mother, or her child. If a baby has died in the womb, the procedure is not an abortion. The purpose of abortion is to kill the unborn child to ensure that the child is born dead.”

Dr. Christina Francis, Chair of the Board, AAPLOG states, “Women carrying children with life-limiting conditions need to be cared for in a way that not only maximizes maternal health, but also honors the life of their child. Delivering a child intact and then administering the appropriate medical care for that child – whether that be palliative care or active treatment – is the medically appropriate and ethical thing to do.”

Dr. Byron Calhoun, perinatologist, noted, “There is never a reason to take the life of an unborn child since there is no ma- ternal condition that requires the death of the fetus to save her life. The infant may need to be delivered prematurely and die as a result of that, but it is not necessary to take the infant’s life. Further, if a fetus has an adverse prenatal diagnosis all patients should be offered perinatal hospice care since this is far better for maternal health than any elective abortion. Peri- natal hospice allows the parents to be parents and provide all the love they can for their child.”

The Fact Sheet concludes with information on a new sub- specialty of OB/GYN – “Complex Family Planning Fellow- ship”. The CLI Fact Sheet states, “the ONLY thing this new subspecialty will focus on that every other OB/GYN isn’t al- ready trained in is late-term abortion procedures…the [aim of this] grisly and unethical subspecialty…is to kill fetal human beings who are capable of surviving outside the womb.” (Find the Fact Sheet at https://lozierinstitute.org)

Submitted by Regina Carbonaro 631-243-1435

Paul Stark, a member of Minnesota Citizens Concerned for Life, wrote an opinion piece at LifeNews.com (10/8/15)and stated, “Before deciding how we ought to treat the unborn – a moral question – we must first be clear about what the unborn is. This is a scientific question, and it is answered with clarity by the science of human embryology.”Stark wrote that the facts of reproduction are clear. At fertilization, the sperm and egg cease to exist. ‘Fertilized egg’is an inaccurate term. A zygote – a single cell with 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) is what exists. This is the point of conception – the beginning of a new human organism. Zygote, embryo and fetus refer to the developmental stages of a human being.Stark continued by pointing out the “four features of the unborn (i.e., the human zygote, embryo or fetus)[which] are relevant to his/her status as a human being.First, the unborn is living. She meets all the biological criteria for life: metabolism, cellular reproduction and reaction to stimuli. Moreover, she is clearly growing, and dead things (of course) don’t grow. Second, the unborn is human. She possesses a human genetic signature that proves this beyond any doubt…Living things do not become something different as they grow and mature; rather, they develop the way that they do precisely because of the kind of being that they are. Third, the unborn is genetically and functionally distinct from (though dependent on and resting inside of) the pregnant woman. Her growth and maturation are internally directed, and her DNA is unique and different from that of any other cell in the woman’s body. She develops her own arms, legs, brain, central nervous system, etc.To say that a fetus is part of the pregnant woman’s body is to say that the woman has four arms and four legs….Fourth, the unborn is a whole or complete (though immature) organism. That is, she is not a mere part of another living thing, but is her own organism – an entity whose parts work together in a self-integrated fashion to bring the whole to maturity. Her genetic information is fully present at conception, determining to a large extent her physical characteristics (including sex, eye color, skin color, bone structure, etc.); she needs only a suitable environment and nutrition to develop herself through the different stages of human life. Thus, the unborn is a distinct, living and whole human organism – a full-fledged member of the species homo sapiens, like you and me, only at a much earlier stage in her development. She is a human being.”Leading scientists and embryology textbooks confirm this fact. Stark acknowledged that the texts and individuals could be cited “ad nauseam”. One of the most widely used embryology texts, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, states, “Human development begins at fertilization when a male gamete or sperm (spermatozoon) unites with a female gamete or oocyte (ovum) to form a single cell – a zygote.This highly specialized, totipotent cell marked the beginning of each of us as a unique individual.” Dr. MichelineMatthews-Roth of Harvard Medical School stated, “It is scientifically correct to say that an individual human life begins at conception when egg and sperm join to form the zygote, and this developing human is always a member of our species in all stages of its life.” After hearing expert testimony, the official report of a 1981 US Senate judiciary subcommittee stated, “Physicians, biologists, and other scientists agree that conception marks the beginning ofthe life of a human being – a being that is alive and is amember of the human species. There is overwhelming agreement on this point in countless medical, biological,and scientific writings…no witness…raised any evidence to to refute the biological fact that from the moment of conception there exists a distinct individual being who is alive and is of the human species.”Stark stated that the claim “no one knows when life begins” is repeated so often that it must be addressed. He acknowledges that there is “debate about when a human being becomes (if she isn’t by nature) valuable and deserving of full moral respect.” However, “the strictly biological matter is clear…The life of a human being…begins at conception.” The argument that sperm and eggs are also human because they have the potential to become a child is “bad biology. The sperm and egg are simply parts of larger organisms. When they unite they cease to be and something new comes into existence: the zygote, whole organism with the active capacity to develop into a mature member of its species, given only a suitable environment and nutrition. Each of us was once a zygote, but none of us was ever a sperm or egg.”There are those who compare the zygote or embryo to other somatic cells which are human, living and possess a full genetic code. But these cells are not actual human beings. There is a critical difference between body cells such a skin cells and a zygote or embryo. The zygote or embryo “is a distinct and complete individual whose parts work together in a coordinated fashion to develop thewhole to maturity.” Skin cells and other somatic cells“function as mere parts of a larger organism.” Another argument that is made is that since very early embryos can split into two distinct embryos (twinning) then the early embryo is not a unitary individual. Stark noted that if flatworm is cut in half, or an organism is cloned, “a single organism gives rise to two distinct organisms. In both cases the original entity is a unitary, self-integrating, whole individual. The scientific evidence shows that the embryo likewise functions as its own organism, from the zygote stage forward, regardless of whether twinning occurs.”There are also those who claim that human life doesn’t begin until the unborn develops a brain. Stark argued,“brain death is accepted as a criterion only because it signals the end of the body’s ability to function as an integrated organism, for which the brain, in older humans, is essential. After brain death there is no longer a unitary organism. By contrast, the embryo is a unitary organism from conception, actively developing to the next stage of human life. The brain, at this earliest stage, is not yet necessary for her to function as such.”Stark concluded, “Because the scientific facts are clear,the permissibility of taking human life hinges on a moral question. Do all human beings merit full moral respect and protection, …or only some?” Submitted by Regina CarbonaroPaul Stark, a member of Minnesota Citizens Concerned for Life, wrote an opinion piece at LifeNews.com (10/8/15)and stated, “Before deciding how we ought to treat the unborn – a moral question – we must first be clear about what the unborn is. This is a scientific question, and it is answered with clarity by the science of human embryology.”Stark wrote that the facts of reproduction are clear. At fertilization, the sperm and egg cease to exist. ‘Fertilized egg’is an inaccurate term. A zygote – a single cell with 46 chromosomes (23 from each parent) is what exists. This is the point of conception – the beginning of a new human organism. Zygote, embryo and fetus refer to the developmental stages of a human being.Stark continued by pointing out the “four features of the unborn (i.e., the human zygote, embryo or fetus)[which] are relevant to his/her status as a human being.First, the unborn is living. She meets all the biological criteria for life: metabolism, cellular reproduction and reaction to stimuli. Moreover, she is clearly growing, and dead things (of course) don’t grow. Second, the unborn is human. She possesses a human genetic signature that proves this beyond any doubt…Living things do not become something different as they grow and mature; rather, they develop the way that they do precisely because of the kind of being that they are. Third, the unborn is genetically and functionally distinct from (though dependent on and resting inside of) the pregnant woman. Her growth and maturation are internally directed, and her DNA is unique and different from that of any other cell in the woman’s body. She develops her own arms, legs, brain, central nervous system, etc.To say that a fetus is part of the pregnant woman’s body is to say that the woman has four arms and four legs….Fourth, the unborn is a whole or complete (though immature) organism. That is, she is not a mere part of another living thing, but is her own organism – an entity whose parts work together in a self-integrated fashion to bring the whole to maturity. Her genetic information is fully present at conception, determining to a large extent her physical characteristics (including sex, eye color, skin color, bone structure, etc.); she needs only a suitable environment and nutrition to develop herself through the different stages of human life. Thus, the unborn is a distinct, living and whole human organism – a full-fledged member of the species Homo sapiens, like you and me, only at a much earlier stage in her development. She is a human being.”Leading scientists and embryology textbooks confirm this fact. Stark acknowledged that the texts and individuals could be cited “ad nauseam”. One of the most widely used embryology texts, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology by Keith L. Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, states, “Human development begins at fertilization when a male gamete or sperm (spermatozoon) unites with a female gamete or oocyte (ovum) to form a single cell – a zygote.This highly specialized, totipotent cell marked the beginning of each of us as a unique individual.” Dr. MichelineMatthews-Roth of Harvard Medical School stated, “It is scientifically correct to say that an individual human life begins at conception, when egg and sperm join to form the zygote, and this developing human is always a member of our species in all stages of its life.” After hearing expert testimony, the official report of a 1981 US Senate judiciary subcommittee stated, “Physicians, biologists, and other scientists agree that conception marks the beginning of the life of a human being – a being that is alive and is a member of the human species. There is overwhelming agreement on this point in countless medical, biological, and scientific writings…no witness…raised any evidence to refute the biological fact that from the moment of conception there exists a distinct individual being who is alive and is of the human species.”Stark stated that the claim “no one knows when life begins” is repeated so often that it must be addressed. He acknowledges that there is “debate about when a human being becomes (if she isn’t by nature) valuable and deserving of full moral respect.” However, “the strictly biological matter is clear…The life of a human being…begins at conception.” The argument that sperm and egg are also human because they have the potential to become a child is “bad biology. The sperm and egg are simply parts of larger organisms. When they unite they cease to be and something new comes into existence: the zygote, whole organism with the active capacity to develop into a mature member of its species, given only a suitable environment and nutrition. Each of us was once a zygote, but none of us was ever a sperm or egg.”There are those who compare the zygote or embryo to other somatic cells which are human, living and possess a full genetic code. But these cells are not actual human beings. There is a critical difference between body cells such as skin cells and a zygote or embryo. The zygote or embryo “is a distinct and complete individual whose parts work together in a coordinated fashion to develop the whole to maturity.” Skin cells and other somatic cells“function as mere parts of a larger organism.” Another argument that is made is that since very early embryos can split into two distinct embryos (twinning) then the early embryo is not a unitary individual. Stark noted that if aflatworm is cut in half, or an organism is cloned, “a singleorganism gives rise to two distinct organisms. In both cases the original entity is a unitary, self-integrating, whole individual. The scientific evidence shows that the embryo likewise functions as its own organism, from the zygote stage forward, regardless of whether twinning occurs.”There are also those who claim that human life doesn’tbegin until the unborn develops a brain. Stark argued,“brain death is accepted as a criterion only because it signals the end of the body’s ability to function as an inte-grated organism, for which the brain, in older humans, isessential. After brain death there is no longer a unitaryorganism. By contrast, the embryo is a unitary organism from conception, actively developing to the next stage of human life. The brain, at this earliest stage, is not yet nec-essary for her to function as such.”Stark concluded, “Because the scientific facts are clear,the permissibility of taking human life hinges on a moral question. Do all human beings merit full moral respect and protection, …or only some?” Submitted by Regina Carbonaro

An Abstract authored by Denise Araujo Lapa Pedreira entitled “Advances in fetal surgery” appeared in the Jan/Mar 2016 issue of Einstein (São Paulo) vol.14 no.1. Her purpose was to discuss “the main advances in fetal surgical therapy aiming to inform healthcare professionals about the state-of-the-art techniques and future challenges in this field.” She discusses “the necessary steps of technical evolution from the initial open fetal surgery approach until the development of minimally invasive techniques of fetal endoscopic surgery (fetoscopy).” The author notes that currently the following “fetal malformations can be treated with fetal surgery…monochorionic twin gestation complications (twin transfusion syndrome, acardiac twin,isolated intrauterine growth restriction, etc.), congenital diaphragmatic hernia (an intratracheal balloon is placed using fetal bronchoscopy), constrictive amniotic bands, lower urinary tract obstruction and, more recently, myelomeningocele” (the most serious form of spina bifida).“Fetal surgery began in the 1980s via open surgery(maternal laparotomy, followed by hysterectomy with direct exposure of the fetus) and was gradually replaced by a less invasive surgical technique named fetoscopy, where ultrasound guides the entrance of a video camera inside the uterus. In the beginning, fetos-copy was carried out only in amniotic fluid medium,using a single port to access the uterine cavity andusing an endoscopic scope with a working channelwhere a laser fiber can be fitted for the coagulation ofblood vessels, where micro catheters go through forthe balloon insertion, as well as, small bipolarforceps.”The author notes that the “fluid medium poses limi-tations for more complex surgeries that require dissec-tion and suture. Images acquired in fluid medium havelower quality than in the aerial medium, and if bleeding occurs, the hemorrhagic fluid does not allow anadequate imaging”. This can result in the procedurenot being completed. Also, movement of the fetus from an “ideal position” can limit the ability to com-plete the procedure. The author stated that “to performfetoscopy in the aerial medium became crucial to theadvances in fetal surgery.”In 2011, the Management of MyelomeningoceleStudy (MOMS) used open surgery for fetal repair.Drs. Adzick et al concluded that “prenatal surgery formyelomeningocele reduced the need for shunting andimproved motor outcomes at 30 months, but was asso-ciated with maternal and fetal risks” (increased risk ofpreterm delivery, uterine dehiscence (rupture), needfor blood transfusions, pulmonary edema). Pedreiranotes that “after a c-section, hysterorrhaphy can healwithout tension, because the baby is already out,while in the open surgery, the fetus remains and con-tinues to grow – therefore the hysterorrhaphy remainsunder constant and progressive tension.”Pedreira noted that “despite these risks, open fetalsurgery became the gold standard to treat mye-lomeningocele”. The search for minimally invasivetechniques that would increase maternal safety con-tinued. In 2014, T. Kohl at the German Center forFetal Surgery and Minimally Invasive Therapy re-ported that a study which included 51 human fetusesemploying “percutaneous (through the skin) minimal-access fetoscopic closure of spina bifida aperta(SBA)” resulted in “a high rate of technical success,regardless of placental or fetal position.” All fetusessurvived the surgery. One very early preterm deliverya week after surgery resulted in immediate death. An-other died from “an unsuspected case of trisomy 13,and there were two infant deaths from Chiari-II mal-formation.” (Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol, 2014 Nov)Pedreira stated that Kohl et al in Germany and hergroup in Brazil were the only groups (at the time ofpublication in 2016) that were pursuing “an entirelypercutaneous endoscopic approach for the prenataltreatment of myelomeningocele…Both groups usefetoscopy with partial carbon dioxide insufflation, butdifferent surgical techniques for the repair itself.” Shenotes that just as in the “transition between perform-ing surgery using laparotomy to using the laparoscop-ic approach, it was necessary to develop new surgicaltechniques, new instruments, trocars access, closuredevices, etc.” She notes that “the German techniquehas achieved neurological developmental results thatare quite similar to the results of the MOMS study,but with minimal maternal morbidity. The Braziliantechnique, (SAFER – Skin-over-biocellulose for An-tenatal Fetoscopic Repair) has obtained superior neu-rologic results compared to the MOMS study.” How-ever, she warns that the results are preliminary (23cases so far). In addition, “because three ports areneeded to access the uterine cavity, the mean gesta-tional age of delivery is slightly inferior, and thepremature rupture of membrane rate is superior [to]the results of the MOMS study.”Pedreira concluded, “We believe that further tech-nical development in the near future will confirm ifthis new technique is not only SAFER to the mother,but also better [for] the fetus.”Submitted by Regina Carbonaro 516-243-1435

 

First TrimesterDuring the first 8 weeks, an unborn child is called anembryo. The embryo grows 10,000 times in size fromconception through the first 4 weeks. The vital organcalled the placenta has vessels from the mother to theunborn child that intertwine without joining. This organis the source of nourishment. The heart begins to pulsateand pump blood during the 3rd week. By the end of 4weeks all major systems and organs begin to form. Theneural tube (which becomes the brain and spinal cord),the digestive system, and the heart circulatory systembegin to form. The embryo has an independent oxygendiffusion system. The beginnings of the eyes and earsare developing. Tiny limb buds which will develop intoarms and legs appear. By eight weeks, all major bodysystems including the circulatory, nervous, digestive andurinary systems continue to develop and function. Thecentral nervous system is now functioning, and 40 mus-cle sets begin their first exercises. The embryo is takingon a human shape, although the head is larger in propor-tion to the rest of the body. The mouth is developingtooth buds, which will become baby teeth. The eyes,nose, mouth and ears are becoming more distinct. Armsand legs are clearly visible. Fingers and toes are stillwebbed but can be clearly distinguished. The fetal heart-beat can be heard using a Doppler. Bones, nose and jawsare rapidly developing. The embryo is in constant mo-tion, but cannot be felt by the mother. The unborn childreacts to touch.After 8 weeks, the unborn child is referred to as afetus (Latin for ‘little one’). At 8 weeks, the fetus is 1 to1 1/2 inches long and all major organs and systems havebeen formed. During weeks 9 – 12, the external genitalorgans are developed, fingernails and toenails appear,eyelids are formed, fetal movement increases, the armsand legs are fully formed, and the larynx begins to formin the trachea. The unborn child can now squint,swallow, move the tongue and sleeps and awakens.There is now a distinct set of fingerprints. Sensitive totouch, the unborn child will now grasp an object placedin the palm. The fetus breathes amniotic fluid to helpdevelop and strengthen the respiratory system, butoxygen is supplied through the umbilical cord. The mostvulnerable time for the unborn child is during the first12 weeks. All the major organs and body systems aredeveloping and can be damaged by exposure to drugs,German measles, radiation, tobacco and chemical andtoxic substances. Although all the organs and bodysystems are fully formed by the end of 12 weeks, thefetus cannot survive independently.Second TrimesterNow that all the major organs and systems have formed,the following 6 months are spent growing. By 4 months,the unborn child is 6-7 inches long. The mother may feelmovement. The unborn child’s brain is maturing, aprocess that will continue long past birth. The eyelids aresealed shut and will re-open at 7 months. Taste buds areworking. 300 quarts of fluid a day pass through theumbilical cord. Fine hair is growing on the head, eye-brows and eyelashes. Facial expressions can be seen.Rapid eye movements (REMs), a sign of dreaming canbe recorded. At the end of 5 months, the unborn child is10-12 inches long and weighs about 1 lb. Babies born atthis age have survived. The 20th week marks the halfwaypoint of the pregnancy. Pain receptors (nociceptors) arepresent throughout the unborn child’s entire body by 20weeks. After 20 weeks, the unborn child reacts to stimulithat would be recognized as painful if applied to anadult. In the unborn child, application of such painfulstimuli is associated with significant increases in stresshormones (the stress response). Subjection to painful stimuli is associated with long-term harmful neuro-developmental effects, such as altered pain sensitivity and possibly, emotional, behavioral, and learning disabilities later in life. Fetal anesthesia is routinely administeredduring surgery on unborn children and is associated witha decrease in stress hormones compared to their levelwhen painful stimuli are applied without anesthesia.There is documented reaction of unborn children topainful stimuli. Fetal surgeons have found it necessary tosedate the unborn child in order to prevent thrashingabout in reaction to invasive surgery. There is substantialmedical evidence that an unborn child is capable ofexperiencing pain by 20 weeks. By the 24th week, theunborn child can be 11-14 inches long and weighs about1 3/4 lbs. Oil and sweat glands function and helpregulate body temperature. Vernix caseosa, a creamywhite substance protects the delicate skin from amnioticfluid and from scratches as the unborn child twists andturns. The unborn child responds to sound. The lungs arefairly well developed and the unborn child stands a goodchance of survival if born at this time.Third TrimesterIn the 7th month, the unborn child uses 4 senses. Theeyelids open and close and the eyes look around, and theunborn child can taste, touch, cough and hiccup. Thegrip is even stronger now than it will be after birth. Anti-bodies are received from the mother that provide immun-ity to a wide variety of diseases. The unborn child is now14-17 inches and weighs 2 1/2 – 3 lbs. The bones of theskull remain soft to allow the unborn child to passthrough the birth canal. Fat deposits under the skin elimi-nate wrinkling and will provide warmth after birth. Atthe end of 8 months the unborn child is about 16 – 18inches long and weighs 4 1/2 – 5 1/2 lbs. In the 9thmonth, the unborn child usually shifts to a head-downposition in preparation for birth. At 9 months, the unbornchild averages about 19 inches and 7 lbs., but this varieswidely. The human growth process will continue formany years after birth.

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